So here we go, starting week #11 if culinary school. This term we will be in, “Intro To Baking”, “Nutrition” and “American Regional Cuisine”. If you notice there is a letter right after the week number. This will address the various classes and separate the multiple posts for the blog.
My goal is to blog about all three of my classes, but we will see. I want to make sure you are getting everything I am learning. Hope you enjoy and here we go!
The first step in the production of breads, pastries and other bakeshop products is the measuring of ingredients. Once measured, ingredients must be mixed or combined in a manner designed to achieve desired results. The techniques used to mix and combine ingredients affect the baked good’s final volume, appearance and texture.
Liquid Weights and measures:
1 cup = 8 ounces
2 cups = 16 ounces or 1 pint or 1 pound
2 pints = 32 ounces or 1 quart or 2 pounds
1 quart = 32 ounces or 2 pounds
4 quarts = 128 ounces or 1 gallon or 8 pounds
Main Ingredients of Bakeshop:
1. Flour-Provides bulk, structure to baked goods. Some flours are used as thicken liquids. Flour is produced when grain kernels are milled or ground to powder. Grains are grasses that bear edible seeds.
A wheat kernel has a hard outer covering called the Bran. The bran protects the Endosperm which supplies energy to the plant as it grows. The innermost part is the Germ, which contains fat and serves as the wheat seed.
During milling, the endosperm is separated from the bran and germ. First the kernel pass through metal rollers to crack or break them, and then the bran and germ are separated through repeated stages of sifting. The remaining endosperm is then ground into flour.
Wheat flour is the most important ingredient in the bakeshop.
It consists of five nutrients:
1. Fat and Minerals each generally account for less than 1% of flours content.
2. The Moisture content of flour is relatively low-when packaged, it cannot exceed 15% under government standards.
3. Starches constitute 63-77% of flour and are necessary for the absorption of moisture during baking. This processes in known as gelatinization, occurs primarily at temperatures above 140*F.
4. Proteins account for up to 70% of flour, these proteins are of crucial importance because of their gluten-forming potential. Gluten is responsible for the volume, texture and appearance of baked goods. It provides structure and enables dough to retain the gases given off by leavening agents. Without gluten, there could be no raised breads. When flour is mixed with water Gluten is formed.
2. Sugar-Provide flavor and color, tenderize products by weakening gluten strands, provide food for yeasts, serve as a preservative and act as a creaming or foaming agent (aeration) to assist with leavening.
3. Eggs-Flavor, leaven and thicken items in the bakeshop. They enrich and tenderize yeast breads and extend the shelf life of some baked goods.
The primary parts of the egg are the shell, yolk and albumen.
• Shell: fragile, porous.
• Yolk: The yellow portion of the egg is high fat, contains minerals and vitamins. It also contains Lecithin the compound responsible for emulsification.
• Albumin (egg white): Is the clear portion of the egg. It is high protein and water.
4. Fats-Is the general term for butter, lard, margarine, shortening and oil. They provide flavor and color, add moisture and richness, assist with leavening, help extend shelf life and shorten gluten strands, producing tender baked goods.
5. Milk & Dairy-Provides texture, flavor, volume, color and nutritional value for cooked or baked items.
6. Thickeners-Starches are often used as thickening agents in bakeshop products. Starches used are Cornstarch, Arrowroot and Tapioca. One of the most commonly used thickeners in the bakeshop is Gelatin, a natural product derived from collagen, an animal protein.
7. Flavorings-Many flavorings ingredients are used in the bakeshop. Practically any herb, spice, beverage, nut or extract can be used to give baked goods, creams and confections their characteristic flavors.
This Weeks Formulas:
Soft Yeast Dinner Rolls
Yield: 34 rolls (1 1/4 oz. each)
- 10 oz water, warm
- 1 oz active dry yeast
- 22 oz bread flour
- 1/2 oz salt
- 2 oz granulated sugar
- 1 oz nonfat-dry milk powder
- 1 oz shortening
- 1 oz unsalted butter, softened
- 1 egg
- egg wash (one part water to three parts egg), as needed
- Combine water and yeast in a bowl. Combine the flour, salt, sugar, milk powder, shortening, butter and egg in a bowl of a mixer with a dough hook.
- Add the water-yeast mixture to the mixer bowl; stir to combine.
- Knead on medium speed 10-minutes or until dough reaches 77*F.
- Transfer dough to lightly greased bowl, cover and place in a warm spot. Ferment until doubled, approximately 1-hour.
- Punch down the dough. Let it rest a few minutes to allow gluten to relax.
- Divide the dough into 1/14 ounce portions and round. Arrange on paper-lined sheet pan. Proof until double in size.
- Carefully brush the proofed rolls with egg wash. Bake at 400*F until medium brown, approximately 12-15 minutes.
- 2 oz butter
- 1 lb. semi-sweet chocolate
- 7 oz sugar
- 4 eggs
- 1 tsp vanilla extract
- 2 oz pastry flour
- 1/4 tbsp baking powder
- 1/2 lb. milk chocolate chips
- 1/2 lb. white chocolate chips
- 1/2 lb. walnuts, chopped
- Melt butter and semi-sweet chocolate over a double broiler.
- Whip eggs with sugar and vanilla extract with whip attachment until light and airy.
- Combine egg mixture with melted chocolate.
- Fold in dry ingredients; milk chocolate chips, white chocolate chips and walnuts.
- Refrigerate for 1/2 hour to firm up.
- Scoop onto a lined sheet pan with a 1-ounce portion scoop. Bake at 375*F for 10-15 minutes.
Peanut Butter Sandies
Yield: 4 1/2 dozen cookies (1 /13 oz each)
- 24 oz pastry flour
- 1 tsp baking soda
- 1 tsp baking powder
- 1 lb. unsalted butter, softened
- 1 lb. granulated sugar
- 2 eggs
- 10 oz peanut butter
- 2 tsp salt
- granulated sugar, as needed
- 2 oz peanut halves
- SIFT together the flour, baking soda and baking powder. Set aside. CREAM the butter. Add the sugar and continue creaming. Gradually add the eggs, followed by the peanut butter and salt.
- Add the dry ingredients to the butter mixture and mix to make a firm dough.
- Scale the dough into 1-pound pieces. Roll the dough into 12 inch logs. Cut into 1-inch pieces.
- Roll each cookie into a ball and place on sheet pan. Press each ball down using the bottom of a measuring cup to slightly less than 1-inch. The edges of the cookies will develop some cracks, which is a desired look.
- Using a fork, press criss-cross markings on the surface of the cookies. Lightly brush the cookie with butter. Sprinkle with granulated sugar and press one peanut half into each cookie.
- Bake at 400*F until golden brown approximately 12-minutes.
Yield: 12 muffins (2 1/2 oz. each)
- 8 oz all-purpose flour
- 5 oz granulated sugar
- 2 tsp baking powder
- 1/4 tsp salt
- 2 eggs
- 8 fl oz milk
- 2 oz unsalted butter, melted
- 1 tsp vanilla extract
- 5 oz blueberries
- 1 tbsp lemon zest
- SIFT together the dry ingredients (flour, sugar, baking powder, salt).
- Stir together the liquid ingredients (eggs, milk, melted butter, vanilla).
- Stir liquid mixture into dry ingredients. Do Not over mix. The batter should be lumpy.
- Gently FOLD in the blueberries and lemon zest.
- Portion into greased muffin cups and bake at 350*F until light brown and set in the center, approximately 18-minutes.
- Cool muffins in the pan for several minutes before removing.