Recipes at the end of post
Roasting is one of the oldest methods of cooking meat. Originally it was done either on a spit or rod, turning slowly over an open fire. The most accepted method today is in the oven. Usually only the finer cuts of meat are roasted.
Roasting and baking are the processes of surrounding a food with dry, heated air in a closed environment. The term roasting is usually applied to meats and poultry, while baking is used when referring to fish, fruits, vegetables, starches, breads and pastry items.
To roast meats properly requires that a few basic guidelines be followed:
- When roasting meats, they should be completely thawed. This insures even cooking.
- Roasting is done in a roasting pan. The pan has low sides, which allow moisture vapor to dissipate without collecting around the roast. Remember, roasting is dry heat cooking. If the meat is covered, steam, and then condensation, will form around the roast. The meat is now being cooked in a moist environment, not a dry one. Cook the meat uncovered when roasting.
- Use a proper size pan. A pan, which is too large, will allow the drippings to spread too thinly in the bottom of the pan, and they will burn. This will ruin the flavor of the juices created for later use.
- Baste the meat frequently with the natural juices. It is important to keep it moist.
The length of time and cooking temperature for roasting will vary with the size and thickness of the cut of meat. The equipment used will also be a factor in selecting time and temperature. The novice culinarian will quickly notice that the thicker the meat, the lower the temperature required. The higher temperatures are only for the smaller cuts or pieces.
Small roasts such as a rack of lamb or a beef tenderloin should be cooked at high temperatures, 375*F-450*F so that they develop good color during their short cooking times. This method of roasting has become popular because of the increased yield. This method also requires less supervision, less clean up and often produces a more tender end product.
The disadvantage of this method is less caramelization, therefore less flavor development. Additionally, there is concern that this method may be dangerous, if carried too far. Very low cooking temperatures can encourage bacteria growth.
High temperature roasting causes fat to melt and much of the meat juices to evaporate. This results in both a reduction of weight and volume. This process can also result in the formation of a bitter, inedible crust on the meat.
Large roasts cooked at constant, low temperature provide a better yeid and less shrinkage. Temperatures between 275*F and 325*F are ideal for large roasts.
Important to remember: Leave the oven door closed!!! For every second the oven door is open the temperature drops 10-degrees.
Carryover cooking and resting:
Cooking does not stop at the moment a roast is removed from the oven. Through conduction, the heat applied to the outside of the roast continues to penetrate, cooking the center for several more minutes.
As meat cooks the juices flow toward the center. Letting the meat rest before slicing allows the juices to redistribute themselves evenly through the roast so that the roast will retain more juices when carved.
Testing for doneness:
In a large cut of meat being roasted, testing can be done in a variety of ways. However, the most reliable method is the use of a thermometer. This method is based on the principle that each stage of doneness is the result of reaching a specific internal temperature within the meat. The tip of the thermometer is heat sensitive and should be inserted into the center of the meat at its thickest point. The tip of the thermometer should not come in contact with the bone. The internal temperature and corresponding degree of doneness is listed below.
The needle method for checking doneness consists a long slender needle inserted into the center of the meat and then withdrawn. The juices that flow from the hole, as well as the warmth of the needle when pressed to the lip, indicate the degree of doneness. The touch method is similar to that used in broiling: squeezing the product to detect its increased resistance as the meat cooks.
Some meats, especially roast and whole birds, require tying or trussing before cooking. Tying larger roast with butcher twine holds loose pieces together during cooking and ensures that the meat retains its shape. Poultry is often trussed to protect the more delicate white breast meat during cooking.
This weeks recipes:
- 1/2 oz Salt
- 1/8 tsp Pepper
- 1/4 tsp Paprika
- 1/8 tsp Thyme, dry
- 1/8 tsp Rosemary, dry
- 1 each Chicken, whole
- Vegetable oil, as needed
For the Pan Gravy:
Combine the salt, pepper, paprika, thyme and rosemary. Wash and dry the chicken, rub the outside skin and cavity with the prepared seasoning. Rub the chicken with oil and truss the chicken with butchers twine.
Place the chicken, breast side up, on a rack in a roasting pan. Oven-sear the chicken in a preheated oven at 450° for 15 min. Turn down the heat to 375°, continue roasting, basting the chicken periodically, to an internal temperature of 155°.
Remove the chicken, cover and keep in a warm place to rest. Place the roasting pan over a low flame, add the mirepoix and caramelize, deglaze the mirepoix with the chicken stock, bring to a simmer, add beurre manie and make pan gravy.
Simmer gravy until proper consistency and flavor is reached; degrease thoroughly. Strain the gravy and season to taste.
- 1 1/2 lb. Russet Potatoes, peeled, quartered
- 4 cloves Garlic, roasted, mashed
- 3 oz Heavy Cream
- 2 oz Butter, soft
- Salt & Pepper, to taste
Prepare the potatoes, cover with cold water, season with salt; bring to a boil and simmer until tender, approximately 25 – 30 minutes.
Roast the garlic in the skin, in the oven until soft.
When potatoes are done, drain and let steam escape, run the potatoes and the garlic through the ricer. Add butter and cream, whip them together quickly, season to taste.
Keep warm in bain marie until needed.
- 1 lb. Carrots
- 1 oz Whole Butter
- 8 oz Chicken stock
- Salt and pepper, to taste
- 1 tbsp Parsley, chopped
Clean, peel, and cut carrots into uniform shapes. Melt butter in a 10-inch sauté pan. Place carrots in pan and sweat. Do not brown. Season.
Add stock and bring to a simmer. Cover with paper lid and place in a 350°F oven for 15-20 minutes or until tender. Remove carrots and reserve. Reduce liquid to a glaze.
Add carrots back to pan and glaze, and heat through. Taste and adjust seasoning and garnish with chopped parsley
Sautéed Green Beans
- 1 lb. Green Beans, trimmed
- 1 oz Butter
- Salt & Pepper, to taste
Prepare and parboil the green beans in boiling salt water, for approximately 6-8 minutes.
Shock the beans in ice water and drain, chill until needed.
To serve, heat butter in a sautee pan and toss in the green beans. Season with salt and pepper to taste.
Roasted Acorn Squash Soup
- 1 each Acorn squash
- 1/4 lb. Onions, chopped coarsely
- 1 fl oz Olive oil
- Salt, to taste
- Black pepper, to taste
- 1 tsp Dried thyme
- 2 qt Chicken stock
- 1 oz Roasted garlic puree
- Fresh parsley, chopped, for garnish
Cut the squash in half and remove the seeds. Bake cut side down in a 350°F oven until very tender. Scoop out the flesh and mix with olive oil, salt and pepper.
Alternatively; peel, seed and chop squash into large dice. Toss with olive oil and salt and pepper and spread out on a sheet tray. Roast in a 350°F oven, turning as necessary to cook evenly, until tender.
In a tall soup pot, saute the onions in olive oil. add the cooked squash, chicken stock or water, and other ingredients. Simmer the soup, adjusting consistency and seasoning as necessary, for 30-minutes.
Allow soup to cool for ten minutes and then puree in blender. Return to pot and finish seasoning and consistency adjustment.
Serve the soup garnished with chopped parsley
- 2 lb. Top Sirloin, trimmed and trussed
- Salt & Pepper, to taste
- For the Jus Lie:
- 4 oz Mirepoix, finely chopped
- 2 oz Red Wine
- 2 cups Brown Veal Stock, prepared
- Slurry, as needed
Trim and truss the beef with butchers twine.
Heat a sauté pan with oil and pan-sear the roast on all sides. Season the roast and place on a rack in a roasting pan.
Place in a preheated oven at 375° and roast to desired doneness. Remove the roast and let it rest for 10 minutes before carving it.
Adjust the oil and add the mirepoix to the roasting pan, caramelize the mirepoix. Deglaze the mirepoix with wine and brown stock, bring to a simmer for 5 minutes, thicken with a slurry and adjust seasoning, strain the jus.
Slice the roast thin, against the grain and serve with au jus.
Serving Size: 4
- 2 lb. Russet potatoes
- 1 oz Clarified Butter
- 2 oz Onions, diced
- 2 oz Bacon, diced
- 4 oz Gruyere cheese grated
- Brown Stock or Chicken Stock, as needed
- Salt & Pepper, to taste
Peel, wash and slice the potatoes 1/4″ thick. Keep the slices together as a potato, do not wash after slicing. This will prevent the slices from turning brown, and help ensure that the potato cake does not fall apart when it is sliced.
Heat the clarified butter in a sauté pan, add onions and bacon, sweat over medium heat, then deglaze with a little stock.
Place the potato and cheese in layers in the chicken stock, then add stock up to the top of the potatoes.
Place over medium heat and bring to a simmer, then cook in a 375° oven until the potatoes are tender and the stock has almost been absorbed and evaporated. Allow to rest at least 10 minutes before slicing.
Stuffed Tomatoes w/Duxelles
Serving Size : 4
- 4 each Roma Tomatoes, peeled and seeded
For the Duxelles:
- 2 oz Clarified Butter
- 1 oz Onions, fine dice
- 12 oz Mushroom, fine chopped
- 1/2 cup Cream
- 1 tblsp Parsley, fine chopped
- Salt & Pepper, to taste
Heat sauté pan with butter, add the onions and sweat until translucent.
Add the mushrooms to the pan and cook. Liquid will come out of the mushrooms – continue cooking until all almost of it is evaporated, add cream and cook till thick. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
Peel the tomatoes, cut off the top and seed, season with salt and pepper. Stuff with the prepared duxelles.
Place in a 375° oven until hot.
- 1 bunch Broccoli
- 11/2 cups Hollandaise Sauce
Prepare the broccoli and parboil it in salted water until just before tender. Shock the broccoli in ice water and drain. Chill until needed.
To serve, reheat the broccoli in boiling water an top with Hollandaise sauce.